Tips & Tricks To Solve Profit & Loss Question In Bank
The quantitative aptitude section of the Bank exam includes
many important topics like âpercentage & averages, simple and compound
interest, time and work, time and distance, algebra, number series etc.
In this Bank exam, a new exam pattern will be followed,
according to which there will be two rounds of exam: a Preliminary Exam
(including sections on Reasoning Ability, Quantitative Aptitude and English
Language) and a Main Exam (including sections on English Language, General
Awareness, Marketing & Computers, Data Analysis & Interpretation and
High Level Reasoning).
Below is a detailed analysis on how to solve profit loss
questions in the QA section, along with practice examples, along with their
NOTE: This topic is also important for all other banking
exams like RBI Assistant exam, LIC ADO exam etc.
The price at which an article is purchased, is called its
cost price. It is abbreviated as C.P.
The price, at which an article is sold, is called its
selling prices, abbreviated as S.P.
â¢ Profit/gain = SP â CP
â¢ Profit % = Profit/(C P)Ã100
â¢ S P = (100+gain % )/100 ÃC P
â¢ C P = 100/(100+gain %)ÃS P
If the overall Cost Price exceeds the selling price of the
buyer then he is said to have incurredloss.
â¢ Loss = C P â S P
â¢ Loss % = LOSS/(C P)Ã100
â¢ S P = (100-loss %)/100ÃC P
â¢ C P = 100/(100-loss %)ÃS P
Profit and Loss Based on Cost Price
To find the percent gain or loss, divide the amount gained
or lost by the cost. .
Example 1: A toy that cost 80 rupees is sold at a profit of
20 rupees . Find the percent or rate of profit.
Answer: Gain / cost = % profit.
20 / 80 = 25%. â Answer.
To find the loss and the selling price when the cost and the
percent loss are given, multiply the cost by the percent and subtract the
product from the cost.
Example 2: A damaged chair that cost Rs.110 was sold at a
loss of 10%. Find the loss and the selling price.
Answer: Cost x percent loss = loss.
110 x 1/10 = 11, loss.
Cost â loss = selling price.
110 â 11 = 99, selling price.
Profit and Loss Based on Selling Price
To find the profit and the cost when the selling price and
the percent profit are given, multiply the selling price by the percent profit
and subtract the result from the selling price.
Example 1: A toy sells for 6.00 at a profit of 25% of the
selling price. Separate this selling price into cost and profit.
Answer : Selling price x % profit = profit.
Selling price = profit = cost.
6.00 x .25 = 1.50, profit.
6.00 â 1.50 = 4.50, cost.
To find the loss and the cost when the selling price and the
percent loss are given, multiply the selling price by the percent loss and
subtract the result from the selling price.
Example 2: At a sale, neckties selling at 50.00 are sold at
a loss of 60% of selling price. What is the loss and the original cost?.
Answer: Selling price x % loss = loss.
Selling price + loss = cost.
50.00 x .60 = 30.00, loss.
50.00 â 30.00 = 20.00, cost.
To find the selling price when the cost and the percent loss
are given, add the percent loss to 100% and divide the cost by this sum.
Example 3: Socks that cost 7.00 per pair were sold at a loss
of 25% of selling price. What was the selling price?.
Answer : Cost / ( 100% + % loss ) = selling price.
7.00 / 1.25 = 5.60, selling price.
To find the selling price when the profit and the percent
profit are given, or to find the selling price when the loss and the percent
loss are given, divide the profit or loss by the percent profit or loss.
Note: This rule should be compared with the one under Profit
and Loss Based on Cost. The two rules are exactly similar except that in one
case 100% represents cost while in the other case 100% represents selling
Example 4: A kind of tape is selling at a profit of 12% of
selling price, equal to 18 per yard. What is the selling price of the tape?.
Answer : Profit / % profit = selling price.
18 /.12 = 1.50 selling price.
To find the percent profit or loss, divide the amount gained
or lost by the selling price.
Example 5: A candy bar sells for 1.30 at a profit of 65.
What percent of profit on selling price does this represent?.
Answer : Gain / selling price = % profit.
65 / 1.30 = .5 or 50% profit.
Generally the SP is less than the marked price (MP) the
difference MP â SP is known as discount, D .
Discount = M P â S P
Discount %, D% = ( Discount) / (M P)Ã100
To reduce percent loss on cost to percent loss on selling
price, divide percent loss on cost by 100% minus percent loss on cost.
Example 1: 20% loss on cost is what percent loss on selling
Answer : % loss on cost / ( 100% â % loss on cost ) = % loss
on selling price.
0.20 / 80 = .0025 or 25% loss on selling price.
To reduce percent loss on selling price to percent loss on
cost, divide percent loss on selling price by 100% plus percent loss on selling
Example 2: 20% loss on selling price is what percent loss on
Answer : % loss on selling price / ( 100% + % loss on
selling price ) = % loss on cost.
.20 / 1.20 = .16666 or .16.67% loss on cost.
To reduce percent mark-up (percent profit on cost) to
percent profit on selling price, divide percent mark-up by 100% plus percent
Example 3: A coat marked up 60% carries what percent of
profit on selling price?
Answer : % profit on cost / ( 100% + % profit on cost ) = %
profit on selling price.
.60 / 1.60 = .375 or 37.5% on selling price.
Types of Questions
Here we are providing you all types of questions that have
been asked in Bank Exams and How to solve it easily using Grade Stack methods
The cost price of 40 articles is the same as the selling
price of 25 articles. Find the gain per cent.
Gain per cent =(40-25)/25Ã100 =15/25Ã100=60%
Grade Stack methods
In Above question We take x = 40 , y = 25
Then Gain % = (x ây) x 100/ y
Bananas are bought at the rate of 6 for Rs. 5 and sold at
the rate of 5 for Rs. 6. Profit per cent is:.
Answer : (c)
To avoid fraction, let the number of bananas boughtLCM of 5
and 6 = 30
CP of 30 bananas = 5 x 5 = Rs. 25.
SP of 30 Bananas = 6 x 6 = Rs. 36.
Profit = Rs. (36-25) = Rs. 11.
Profit % = 11/25Ã100=44%
Grade Stack Method
[(6 x 6 -5x 5)/ (5 x 5)] x 100 = 44%
A man bought oranges at the rate of 8 for Rs 34 and sold
them at the rate of 12 for Rs. 57. How many oranges should be sold to earn a
net profit of Rs 45?.
Let the man buy 24 (LCM of 8 and 12) oranges.
C.P. of 24 oranges = 34/8 Ã24 = Rs. 102.
S.P. of 24 oranges = 27/12Ã24= Rs. 114.
Gain = 114 â 102 = Rs. 12.
Rs. 12 = 24 oranges.
Rs. 45 = 24/12Ã45= 90 oranges.
A shopkeeper earns a profit of 12% on selling a book at 10%
discount on printed price. The ratio of the cost price to printed price of the
book is ?.
(a) 45 : 56
(b) 50 : 61
(c) 90 : 97
(d) 99 : 125
C.P. of the book = Rs. x.
Printed price = Rs. y.
(yÃ90)/100=x Ã 112/100
A dealer sold two types of goods for Rs 10,000 each. On one
of them, he lost 20% and on the other he gained 20%. His gain or loss per cent
in the entire transaction was.
(a) 2% loss
(b) 2% gain
(c) 4% gain
(d) 4% loss
Here, S.P. is same, Hence there is always a loss. Loss per
cent = (20Ã20)/100=4%.
Loss % = (n^2)/100= (20)^2/100= 4%
Where n= 20
On selling an article for Rs170, a shopkeeper loses 15%. In
order to gain 20%, he must sell that article at rupees:.
C.P. of article = (200Ã120)/100 = Rs. 240.
An article is sold at a loss of 10%. Had it been sold for
Rs. 9 more, there would have been a gain of 12 1/2% on it. The cost price of
the article is.
(a) Rs. 40.
(b) Rs. 45.
(c) Rs. 50.
(d) Rs. 35.
Let the cost price of the article = Rs. x.
S.P. at 10% loss = xÃ90/100 = Rs. 9x.
â¢ P. at 12 1/2 % gain.
x Ã (100+12 1/2)/100 = Rs. 225x/200.
According to the question, 9x + 9 = 225x/200
180x + 1800 = 225x
x = Rs. 40.
Grade Stack Method
If sign is not same then, we have to Add
If sign is same then, we have to Subtract
â 10 % + 12 Â½
22 Â½% = 9%
100 % = ?
Formula = (n x 100 )/ (difference of loss % or Gain)
Note : where n= 9
A sells a suitcase to B at 10% profit. B sells it to C at
30% profit. If C pays Rs 2860 for it, then the price at which a bought it is.
If the C.P. of the suitcase for A be Rs. x, then.
x=(2860Ã100Ã100)/(110Ã130) = Rs. 2000.
Arun marks up the computer he is selling by 20% profit and
sells them at a discount of 15%. Arunâs net gain percent is.
r1 = 20 , r2 = 15
Formula = r1 â r2 â (r1 x r2)/100
= 20 -18 = 2%
A tradesman sold an article at a loss of 20%. If the selling
price had been increased by Rs. 100, there would have been a gain of 5%. The
cost price of the article was:.
(a) Rs. 200.
(b) Rs. 25.
(c) Rs. 400.
(d) Rs. 250.
Let the C.P. of article be Rs. x.
105% of x â 80% of x = Rx. 100.
25% of x = Rx. 100.
x = Rs. (100Ã100)/25.
= Rs. 400.